Advanced Search Filters

In addition to or instead of a keyword search, use one or more of the following filters when you search.

Skip to main content
Bookmark this Item

Eugenics Charts from the Kansas Free Fair

American Philosophical Society Library

Based in unfounded beliefs about race and heredity, eugenics found a major following in both Germany and the United States during the 1920s and 1930s. The Nazi regime used theories of eugenics to add a sense of scientific legitimacy to its claims that the so-called "Aryan" race was genetically superior to others. In a different context, American eugenicists also promoted racial hierarchies and the ideal of a "perfect" American family.1 In both Germany and the United States, advocates of eugenics argued that genetics explained a person's intelligence, their personality, and their class status. In the US, they emphasized the superiority of middle-class white families over recent immigrants, Black Americans, and other non-white families.2

Health exhibits at state fairs were one of the many methods that supporters of eugenics used to spread their theories. The featured charts were displayed at the Eugenic and Health exhibit at the Kansas Free Fair in 1929. They were created to show visitors to the fair who should be considered "fit" for reproduction—and who should not.3 Those labeled "unfit," "abnormal," or "tainted" generally included people who had been diagnosed with certain mental disabilities or alcoholism. People living in poverty or those with extensive criminal records were also included. Racism and sexism also played heavily into eugenicist ideas of which individuals should be targeted. Eugenicists spread the idea that selective marriages based on ancestry were necessary because they believed that each of these supposedly "undesirable" traits was passed through childbearing. 

American eugenic thinking influenced Nazi doctrines and policies. For example, Nazi marriage and sterilization laws were partly inspired by American models.4 Under these laws, more than 400,000 German citizens were forcibly sterilized by the end of World War II. The theories of "fit and unfit marriages" depicted on the featured chart were also central to Nazi propaganda.5

Starting in the early 20th century, dozens of American states passed laws forcing the sterilization of thousands of citizens diagnosed with certain mental disabilities.6 By the early 1960s, more than 62,000 Americans had been forcibly sterilized. According to one scholar's estimate, more than 60 percent of the total eugenic sterilizations in the United States had been on women.7 The eugenic ideal of a racial hierarchy was never adopted into law in the US on the scale of Nazi Germany, but these ideas could be found throughout American society—from scientific laboratories to state fairs.

Paul Lombardo, ed., A Century of Eugenics in America (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2011), 1–2.

To learn more, see Wendy Kline, Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).See also the PBS documentary film, The Eugenics Crusade, 2018.

American state fairs also sponsored events that were commonly known as "Better Baby Contests," which awarded prizes for the "fittest" child. The 1920 Kansas Free Fair featured the first "Fittest Family" contest.

In 1933, the Nazi regime instituted the Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases, which required the forced sterilization of any citizens diagnosed with so-called genetic disorders. The 1935 Nuremberg Laws decreed that prospective marriage partners be tested for hereditary diseases to guarantee the purity of the so-called "Aryan" race. See James Q. Whitman, Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017). 

Alexandra Minna Stern, Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016), 3.

To learn more, see Adam Cohen, Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck (New York: Penguin Books, 2016). 

Rebecca M. Kluchin, Fit to Be Tied: Sterilization and Reproductive Rights in America 1950–1980 (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2011), 17–20.

Close Window Expand Source Viewer

This browser does not support PDFs. Please download the PDF to view it: .

Archival Information for This Item

Source (Credit)
American Philosophical Society Library
Accession Number Mss.575.06.Am3, American Eugenics Society Records
Date Created
Kansas, USA
Document Type Poster
How to Cite Museum Materials

Thank You for Supporting Our Work

We would like to thank The Alexander Grass Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for Experiencing History. View the list of all donors and contributors.


Learn more about sources for your classroom