Forced labor became a defining feature of life for Jews under the Nazi regime. While Nazi policies eventually introduced forced labor at camps such as Auschwitz and Dachau, it was not part of policymakers inital plans. Instead, forced labor was originally intended to humiliate “racial enemies” and assert Nazi power.
In this image, as part of a ritual of public humiliation, Jewish men and women were forced to scrub the streets to remove political slogans that were critical of Germany’s annexation of Austria, an event also known as the Anschluss.1 In the background, members of the German SA and SS look on, joined by an apparently enthusiastic crowd of civilian spectators. In the days and weeks following the Anschluss, there was a rapid rise in anti-Jewish violence across Austria, particularly in Vienna, where 90 percent of Austria’s Jewish population lived.2
In forcing Jews to perform manual labor, the Nazis acted upon antisemitic ideas about Jews being unproductive, lazy, and overprivileged. Nazi officials encouraged children and crowds to watch and participate in these kinds of ritual humilations,3 which could last hours or even days. In doing so, the party also sought to create public acceptance for the exclusion of Jews.4 Distributing photographs of these events aided that effort. Images similar to this one were widely circulated at the time by the antisemitic Nazi publication Der Stürmer.
From 1933 to 1938 the Nazis, with the cooperation of many German agencies and businesses, passed numerous laws and regulations designed to impoverish Jews and remove them from economic life.5 Jews were slowly stripped of any means to make a living and forced into unemployment, poverty—and many were forced into the kind of unskilled labor depicted in this photograph. In September 1938, the Austrian labor administration began requiring unemployed Jews to work in construction and road building projects. This approach, implemented first in Vienna, became the model for forced labor throughout the Third Reich.6 Systematic use of Jewish forced labor began in earnest at the end of 1938 following Kristallnacht, the violent attack on Jews and Jewish owned businesses throughout Germany.7 The forced labor program eventually expanded and included more groups, particularly eastern workers in occupied Poland and the Soviet Union.
The type of manual forced labor illustrated here was transformed into a large-scale program affecting millions of people within only three years. The marginalization of the Jewish community took place in public, in their own communities and streets, as this photograph demonstrates. Images like this one helped make the public willing to accept it.